Question Answer
Soil is one of the most valuable ___ factors in an ecosystem because everything that lives on land depends directly or indirectly on soil abiotic
Soil quality properties that can be observed soil profile, composition, texture, and particle size
Soil profile made up of the layers or horizons of soil
3 layers that make up a mature soil profile topsoil, subsoil, and parent material above the bedrock
The most suitable soil for plant growth consists of a mixture of ___, ___, and ___ humus, clay, minerals
Most animals live in the ___ horizon topsoil
composition of soil a mixture of rock particles, minerals, decayed organic material, air, and water
humus decayed organic matter in soil
The combination of sand, silt, and clay in soil determines the soil type and affects the types of ___ that can grow in it or ___ that can live in it plants, animals
factors that may affect soil type the types of plants, climate, time, and slope of the land
soil ___ depends on the size of individual soil particles and is determined by the relative proportions of particle sizes that make up the soil texture
Texture names may include loam, sandy clay loam, silt loam, or clay depending upon the ___ of sand, silt, and clay in the soil sample percent
The texture affects the amount of ___ that can be absorbed for use by plants and animals water
Particle size of soil from largest to smallest gravel, sand, silt, and clay
Gravel soil particles larger than 2mm
___ size also affects the amount of water that can be absorbed and used by plants and animals particle
Soil properties that can be measured pH, and permeability
pores open spaces between soil particles that let water flow through
permeability how freely water flows through the soil
The closer the particles pack together because of particle size, the less ___ the soil is permeable
Measuring permeability involves calculating the ___ of drainage rate
Soils can be basic or acidic and usually measure ___ on the pH scale 4-10
Indicators can be used to measure the ___ of soils pH
Most plants grow best in soils with a pH of between _ and _ 5 and 7
Regardless of the nutrients present in the soil, if the pH is not suitable those nutrients will be ___ to the organisms inaccessible
lime kind of fertilizer that alters pH and making the soil nutrients more accessible.
All organisms on Earth, including humans, use resources provided by the ___ environment
Living things use, change, and ___ natural resources reuse
renewable resources resources that can be replaced and reused by nature
nonrenewable Natural resources that cannot be replaced by nature
___ ___are replaced through natural processes at a rate that is equal to or greater than the rate at which they are being used renewable resources
___can be cleaned and purified by plants during the process of photosynthesis as they remove carbon dioxide from the air and replace it with oxygen Air
The ___ ___ allows Earth’s water to be used over and over within the environment water cycle
___ is formed to replace soil that has been carried away by wind ; water topsoil
renewable resource that provides a source of energy for all processes on Earth solar energy (sunlight)
___ ___ are exhaustible because they are being extracted and used at a much faster rate than the rate at which they were formed Nonrenewable resources
examples of nonrenewable resources Fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas), diamonds, metals, and other minerals
takes millions of years to be replaced nonrenewable resources
Reducing involves making a decision to not use a resource when there is an alternative, such as walking or riding a bicycle rather than traveling in a car
Reusing involves finding a way to use a resource (or product from a resource) again without changing it or reprocessing it, such as washing a drinking glass rather than throwing away plastic or Styrofoam
Recycling involves reprocessing a resource (or product from a resource) so that the materials can be used again as another item, such as metals, glass or plastics being remade into new metal or glass products or into fibers.
Protecting involves preventing the loss of a resource, usually living things, by managing their environment to increase the chances of survival, such as providing wildlife preserves for endangered animals.