Question Answer
Embryonic Brain Development Primary Brain Vesicles (Know Table in Lecture Guide). Prosencephalon, Mesencphalon, Rhombencephalon
Secondary Brain Vesicles Telencephalon, Diencephalon, Mesencphalon, Metencephalon, Myelencephalon. (Tel Di Mes Met My Mom).
Prosencephalon Becomes: Telencephalon-cerebrum, lateral ventricles. Diencephalon- Epithalamus, thalamus, hypothalamus, Third ventricle.
Mesencphalon Becomes: Mesencephalon-Midbrain (cerebral peduncles, corpora quadrigemina), Mesencephalic (Cerebral) aqueduct.
Rhombencephalon Becomes: Metencephalon-Pons and cerebellum, Anterior part of fourth ventricle. Myelencephalon-Medulla oblongata, Posterior part of fourth ventricle.
Cranial Meninges Connective tissue layers surrounding the BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD. Dura, arachnoid and pia maters. Functions: Separate brain from skull. Enclose & protect blood vessels supplying brain. Contain & circulate cerebrospinal fluid.
Brain Ventricles Lateral Ventricles, Septum pellucidum, Third ventricle, Mesencephalic (cerebral) aqueduct, Fourth ventricle.
Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF) Produced in the choriod plexus-made of ependymal cells. Clear, colorless. Circulates through ventricles. Functions: Buoyancy, Protection, Environmental stability-transports nutrients, chemical messengers, removes waste.
Hydrocephalus "Water on the brain." Excessive CSF. Caused by: obstruction of CSF flow, Intrinsic problems w/ the arachnoid villi which drain CSF. Treatments:Ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VP). Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (EVT).
Cerebrum Location of conscious thought processes. 2 hemispheres connected by corpus callosum. Gyri and sulci account for large cerebral surface area.
Cerebrum superficial gray matter Cortex. Houses motor neurons cell bodies.
Cerebrum deep white matter Houses myelinated axons
Lobes of the Cerebrum Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital, Insula
Frontal Lobe Decision making, personality, verbal communication, voluntary motor control of skeletal muscles.
Parietal lobe Sensory interpretation of textures and shapes, understanding speech.
Temporal lobe Auditory and olfactory experience
Occipital Vision
Insula Taste, memory
Frontal Lobotomy "Cure" for people who were violent or profoundly disturbed. Japan: on children who did bad in school. USA: prisoners for early parole. 1930s-50s. Replaced by depression & psychiatric meds. Needle probe through eye area into brain.
Functional areas of the Cerebrum Pre-central gyrus, Post-central gyrus, Association areas.
Pre-central gyrus Contains primary motor cortex. Somatic motor control.
Post-central gyrus Contains somatosensory cortex. Somatic sensory control.
Association areas All cortical regions other than primary sensory and motor areas.
Homunculus A map of the primary motor and sensory cortexes of the brain. Body part size corresponds to relative innervation of body part. Movement versus sensation.
Cerebral White Matter ASSOCIATION TRACTS-connect dif parts of same hemisphere. COMMISSURAL TRACTS-connect hemispheres (corpus callosum). PROJECTION TRACTS-run vertically; convey sensory & motor information.
Diencephalon Consists of thalamus, epithalamus, hypothalamus. Composed primarily of gray matter.
Epithalamus Forms posterior roof of diencephalon & covers the third ventricle. HABENULAR NUCLEI-relays signals from the limbic system. Involved in the visceral & emotional responses to odors. PINEAL GLAND-secretes melatonin to regulate circadian rhythms.
Thalamus Lies on either side of the third ventricle. Principle relay point for sensory & motor information into cerebrum. Interthalamic adhesion.
Hypothalamus Functions Behavior, Endocrine, Emotion, Temperature control, Sleep/Wake cycles, Hunger/Thirst, Autonomic control, Memory (BEET SHAM)
Cerebellum Smooths & coordinates body movements via: Info on equilibrium & posture, Info on current movements, Proprioception: Sensation of positions of body parts relative to each other, allows touching your nose w/ eyes closed. Hemispheres, vermis, arbor vitae.
Brain Stem "Primitive Brain." Bidirectional passageway between cerebrum & spinal cord. Contains many autonomic & reflex centers essential for survival. Includes the mesencephalon, pons, & medulla oblongata.
Medulla Oblongata Vasomotor center. Controls BP through vasoconstriction & vasodilation. Cardiac center. Respiratory center, Reflexes: coughing, sneezing, gagging, vomiting, etc. Point of attachment for cranial nerves.
Limbic System "Emotional Brain." Involved in motivation, emotion, and memory.
Spinal Cord Gray matter is deep. Central canal. Anterior, lateral, & posterior horns. White matter is superficial. Anterior, lateral, & posterior funiculi. Anterior median fissure, Posterior median sulcus, Dorsal root ganglion. Meninges.
Alzheimer Disease Progressive degenerative disease of the brain. Results in dementia. 5-15% of people over 65 develop it. Symptoms: Mem loss, depression, disorientation. Caused by: Neurofibrillary tangles, Amyloid Precursor Proteins (APP) or senile plaques. Lose brain mass
Parkinson Disease Affects muscle movement and balance. Symptoms, stiff posture, Expressionless face, slow movements, resting tremor, shuffling gait. Caused by lack of the neurotransmitter dopamine.