Question Answer The major pipes of the circulatory system that carry blood away from the heart Arteries The small branches off the arterioles Capillaries The large vessels that carry blood back to the heart Veins The upper chambers of the heart Atria (atrium) The lower chambers of the heart Ventricles The center of venous drainage The right atrium The inner layer of the heart Endocardium The middle layer of the heart; toughest and thickest in the ventricles Myocardium The outer layer of the heart Epicardium The open space in the center of blood vessels Lumen (Lumina) The inner covering of the vessels nearest the blood Tunica Intima The middle layer of the blood vessels Tunica Media The outer layer of the blood vessels Tunica Adventitia The vessels of the vessels Vasa Vasorum What structure is the center of fluid distribution? The Aortic Arch *Base of the triangle: Inguinal Ligament
*Medial Border: Abductor Longus
*Lateral Border: Sartorius Muscle Scarpa's Triangle
"Femoral Triangle" What do you find in the femoral triangle? NAVE
*Femoral Nerve
*Femoral Artery
*Femoral Vein
*Emptying of great saphonous vein What muscle is behind the NAVE? Pectineus Muscle Anterior Border: Sartorius Muscle
Medial Border: Adductor Longus
Posterior Border: Adductor Magnus
Lateral Border: Vastus Medialis Hunter's Canal

*NAV is in the center Superior Border: Inferior border of Thyroid Cartilage
Medial Border: Trachea
Lateral Border: Medial border of SCM Carotid Triangle What are the criteria for selecting an artery? Accessibility, Proximity to the arch, Size, Effect on posing the body Any surface, prominence, structure which is used for establishing the location of an adjacent structure or prominence Anatomical Guide Points of origin & termination of a vessel expressed in relation to adjacent anatomical structures or prominences Anatomical Limits An imaginary line drawn on the surface of the skin to represent the approx location of a deeper lying structure or prominence Linear Guide A.G: Lateral border of Trachea & medial border of SCM
L.G: Line drawn from sternoclavicular articulation to the earlobe Common Carotid What is the anatomical limit for the right common carotid? Begins at the point behind the sternoclavicular articulation and extends to the level of the superior border of the thyroid cartilage What is the anatomical limit for the left common carotid? Begins at the level of the 2nd costal cartilage and extends to the superior border of the thyroid cartilage What is the accompanying vein to the common carotid? Internal Jugular What are the advantages of the common carotid? *Can inject the face directly, close to the arch
*Only artery in the neck
**have to be careful not to blow up the face AG: Just behind medial border of coracobrachialis muscle
AL: Lateral border of 1st rib & extends to inferior border of teres major
LG: Line drawn through center at base of axillary space & parallel to the long axis of the upper extremity when abducted Axillary Artery
*continuation of the subclavian in the armpit area What are advantages of the axillary? *Close to arch
*Less chance of blowing up the face
*Good drainage from accompanying vein What are disadvantages of the axillary? *Lots of branches
*Don't want to use with a firming fluid AG: Posterior to medial border of the biceps brachii
AL: Begins where inferior border of the teres major muscle is & extends to point just distal to antecubital fossa
LG: Line drawn from center of base of axillary space to the center of forearm Brachial Artery
*continuation of axillary artery What is the accompanying vein for the brachial artery? Basilic Vein AG: Just lateral to tendon of the flexor carpi radialis
AL: extends from a point inferior of the antecubial fossa to the palm of the hand, thumb side
LG: Base of antecubial fossa to index finger Radial Artery
*lateral branch of the bifurcation of brachial artery

**most superficial vessel in wrist AG: Just lateral to tendon of flexor carpi ulnaris
AL: Center of antecubital fossa to the index finger
LG: Center of antecubital fossa to the 4th & 5th finger Ulnar Artery
*medial branch of the bifurcation of the brachial artery AL right: Begins where rt common carotid begins & extends to lateral border of 1st rib (comes off the brachiocephalic)
AL left: begins at level of 2nd costal cartilage & extends to lateral border of 1st rib Subclavian Artery What is the vessel that can be used in infants 1 year or less? Abdominal Aorta *Bifurcation of abdominal aorta
AG: Lies along the superior medial border of psoas major Common Iliac AG: Along inferior medial border of psoas major
AL: Begins opposite the sacroiliac synchondrosis & extends to central inguinal ligament
LG: line drawn from superior-anterior iliac spine to pubic symphusis External Iliac AG: Center of scarpas/femoral triangle
AL: Begins in center of inguinal ligament & ends at opening of adductor magnus(adductor hiatus)
LG: Line that begins at center of inguinal ligament to the center of medial condyle of femur Femoral Artery AG: Back of the knee
AL: Begins where femoral ends at the opening of the adductor magnus & ends at the popliteal muscle
LG: Line drawn through the center of popliteal space parallel to the long axis of leg Popliteal Artery
*continuation of the femoral AG: Anterolateral edge of tibia
AL: Begins where popliteal leaves off at inferior border of popliteus muscle & ends at the ankle joint
LG: Lateral border of the patella to the anterior surface of ankle joint Anterior Tibial Artery
*anterior branch of the bifurcation of popliteal artery AG: Groove behind & below the medial malleolus & achilles tendon
AL: Inferior border of popliteus tendon & ends beneath the origin of the abductor hallucis
LG: Center of popliteal space & extends to the space btn. the medial malleolus & calcaneal tendo Posterior Tibial Artery
*posterior branchof the bifurcation of the popliteal artery AG: Groove between the tendons of the extensor hallucis longus muscle & extensor digitorum longus muscle
LG:Center of the anterior surface of the ankle joint & extends to the space between the big toe & adjacent toe Dorsalis Pedis Artery
*continuation of the anterior tibial artery Blood vessel running collaterally to a more major vessel to another part of the major vessel

*helps bypass clots & blockages in arteries Anastomosis Name the factors you consider when selecting an artery Age, Gender, Weight/Fat Distribution, Disfigurations, Disease, Mutilation, COD, Local Obstruction/Clots Inject & drain the whole body with one site only 1 Site Injection Drain from a different location than where you are injecting Split Injection 2 or more complete injection & drainage sites Multi-point (sectional) Injection Both common carotids are drained from the right internal jugular Restricted Cervical Both carotids, both axillaries, & both femorals 6 Point Injection Incision made at a right angle to the axis of the artery Transverse Incision made parallel to the artery Longitudinal Arrow-head shaped incision made with scissors Wedge Incision that combines the transverse & longitudinal

*useful for sclerotic arteries T Shaped Incision that is oblique at a 45* angle; never cut through more than half the vessel Diagonal How many pounds per foot of pressure does the gravity injector give? What causes the pressure? .43 pounds of pressure per foot of elevation. Gravity causes the pressure. The force required to distribute embalming fluid throughout the body Pressure Pressure indicated by the pressure gauge while the machine is running but not injecting Potential Pressure Pressure indicated by the gauge when the arterial fluid is flowing into the body Actual Pressure The difference between the potential and actual pressure Differential Sutures made through subcutaneous tissue only, not the skin; back and forth stitch Single Intradermal/Subcutaneous Suture
(Hidden Stitch) Sutures the same as the single but there are needles on both ends of the ligature; criss-cross stitch like shoelaces Double Intradermal/Subcutaneous Suture Suture that uses an S needle & the stitch is made from beneath, up through the skin, & crossed side to side Baseball/Sail Stitch Suture that moves up and over passing the needle underneath the ligature to lock; creates a ridge Lock/Half Stitch A temporary suture used on exposed areas, to anchor sutures around pins, and to assist in permanent closure by bringing & holding the lips of the incision together when sealer is used Figure Eight Suture that is the same as the intradermal except it draws through the skin Draw/Worm Stitch Suture that passes the ligature through both sides of the incision from the outside until closed Whip/Continuous Glover Suture
(Roll Stitch) Each stitch is tied and cut, normally used as a temporary stitch Bridge/Interrupted Suture Describe characteristics of arteries *Have no blood
*Don't have valves
*Usually deep in the tissue for protection
*Cream colored with red hair-like vessels
*Feel like thick rubber bands
*Will stand open when cut Describe characteristics of veins *Engorged with blood
*Have valves
*More superficial than arteries
*Blue/Bluish-Gray
*Thinner vessel than arteries
*Collapse when cut What are intravascular factors that influence fluid resistance/injection pressure? *Size of Vessels
*Condition of Vessels
*Local Congestion What are extravascular factors that influence fluid resistance/injection pressure? *Weight of Viscera
*Gas Collection in Viscera
*Tumors
*Ascites
*Contact Pressure
*COD
*Post-mortem Interval Drainage that helps build pressure in the body to help push clots through Restricted Drainage Amount/volume of embalming solution injected over a period of time Rate of Flow The dilution of the concentrated arterial with water to form the arterial solution that is injected into the body; fully controlled by the embalmer Primary Dilution Formalin is how much formaldehyde by weight & how much by volume? 37% by weight
40% by volume The amount of formaldehyde gas measured in grams dissolved into 100 ml of water Index The dilution of the already diluted fluid by fluids of the body; not under control of the embalmer Secondary Dilution Secondary dilution can be increased or decreased how? Can be increased by edema, has a higher preservative demand. Can be decreased by a dehydrated body. The movement of embalming solution from the point of injection throughout the arterial, capillary, & venous portions of the blood vascular system Fluid Distribution Fluid passage through the capillary walls because of positive intravascular pressure Pressure Filtration Movement of solvent from dilute to concentrated solution Osmosis The separation of differing substances in solution because of their differing diffusability through semi-permeable membranes Dialysis The extravascular pull of fluid by gravitational force Gravity Filtration How many gallons of fluid do you inject for every 50 lbs of body weight? 1 gallon per 50 lbs What are the signs of fluid distribution? Distention of superficial vessels, Blood drainage, Reduction of lividity, Change in skin color, Mottling, Re-hydration, Desirable distention, Tissue fixation Which is the least reliable sign of fluid distribution? Tissue Fixation Chemicals that inactivate saprophytic bacteria, render unsuitable for nutrition the media upon which such bacteria thrive, will arrest decomp by altering enzymes & lysins of the body as well as converting the decomposable tissues into a form much…. less susceptible to decomp

= Preservative Name the different types of preservative that can be in in arterial Aldehydes, Alcohols, Phenol & Phenolic Compounds, Inorganic Salts Formaldehyde & Gluteraldehyde Aldehydes Methyl, Isopropyl, & Ethyl Alcohols Sodium Chloride, Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Sulfate, Potassium Nitrate, Metallic Salts Inorganic Salts Formaldehyde, Gluteraldehyde, Phenol, QUATS (Zephiran Chloride & Roccal) Germicides Chemicals which kill or render incapable of reproduction the disease causing organisms Germicide Chemicals that retard the tendency of blood to become more viscous by natural PM processes or they prevent adverse reactions btn. blood & embalming chemicals Anti-coagulants Sodium Citrate, Sodium Oxylate, Calcium Oxylate
TDA (Tetrasodium Diacetic Acid)
EDTA (Ethylene Diamine Tetracetic Acid) Anti-coagulants Liquids which serve as the solvent for all the ingredients incorporated into embalming fluid

ex: Water, Alcohol Vehicle Chemicals which reduce the molecular cohesion of a liquid & thereby enable it to flow through smaller apertures Surfactants
aka: Wetting Agents, Surface Tension Reducers, Penetrating Agents, Surface Active Agents Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, Sulfonates Surfactants Substances which will upon being dissolved impart a definite color to the solvent Dyes
aka: Coloring Agent Eosine, Carmine, Ponceau Red, Erythrosine Dyes Chemicals having the capability of displacing an unpleasant odor or of altering an unpleasant odor so that it is converted to a more pleasant one Re-odorants/Deodorants Methyl Salicylate (Oil of Wintergreen), Oil of Cloves, Lemon Oil, Cherry Oil, Oil of Sassafras, Benzaldehyde Re-odorants/Deodorants Chemicals that are used to supplement, balance, control, or complement the action of the arterial fluids Modifying Agents (Modifiers) Chemicals which create an increased capability for embalmed tissues to retain their moisture Humectants Glycerol, Sorbitol, Hexylene Glycol, Lanolin & other Oils, Aloe Humectants Chemicals which affect or bring about a stabilization of the acid/base balance within embalming solutions or in embalmed tissues Buffers (Buffering Agents) Borax/Boric Acid, Sodium Bicarbonate, Disodium Phosphate, Sodium Citrate, EDTA Buffers Chemicals used to change hard water to soft water Water Conditioning Agents
aka: Water Conditioners/Softeners Sodium Citrate, Sodium Oxylate, EDTA Water Conditioning Agents What are found in jaundice fluids? *Low Index
*Reducing Agents
*Bleaching Agents
*Counter-staining Dyes
*Vehicle= Water Fluids designed to be injected into aspirated viscera Cavity Fluids How are cavity fluids used? Directly from the bottle, not diluted. Can be used in a pack or hypodermic injection. How many ounces of cavity fluid is to be used? 32 oz total
*16 in thoracic cavity
*16 in abdominal cavity What preservatives are found in cavity fluids? Formaldehyde, Gluteraldehyde, Phenol, Alcohols, Inorganic Salts What germicides are found in cavity fluids? QUATS, Phenol, Gluteraldehyde What re-odorants are found in cavity fluid? Benzaldehyde, Lemon Oil, Wintergreen Oil Fluids used/injected before the arterial Pre-injection Fluids Fluids added to the arterial Co-injection Fluids Contain powdered germicides, drying agents, and powdered preservatives

*help preserve viscera in autopsy cases Hardening Compounds What are the hardening agents found in hardening compounds? Plaster of Paris, Ammonium Chloride What are the disinfectants found in hardening compounds? Paraformaldehyde, Ammonium Chloride (Alum) What are the moisture absorbers found in hardening compounds? Saw Dust, Clays, Powdered Chalk What are the fillers found in hardening compounds? Perlite, Cellulose Fungicides & bactericides that are used in bodies that will be entombed Mold Preventative Agents What are the chemicals used as mold preventative agents? Paraformaldehyde, Paradichlorobenzene

*mostly made up of paraformaldehyde Compounds that help prevent leakage, make a chemical barrier Sealing Compounds
aka: Sealing Agents, Sealers, Cauterizing Agents Used for topical embalming Pack Applications Total amount of preservative with which protein will combine to be completely preserved Fluid Demand What are the factors that affect the shelf life of formaldehyde? *Temperature: avoid extremes
*Time: no more than 2-4 years
*pH: buffers help keep neutral
*Light: bright, direct light= no no