Ricks and Minerals

Question Answer
What are the 3 properties used to identify a mineral. color, hardness, streak
What is the color of the powder left behind by a mineral when it is rubbed agaisnt a rough whate wall? streak
What is an imprint fossil? diinosaur tracks
What type of rock is formed by a volcano? Igneous
Plant fossils are not as common as animal fossils because the soft parts of plants are easily what? destroyed
What rock was once melted and then cooled? Igneous
What object is solid, formed in nature and never been alive? minerals
What are remains of a living thing that died long ago fossils
What rock has been changed by heat and pressure? metamorphic
What rock is formed from material that has settled into layers? Sedimentary
What is a naturally formed solid made of one or more minerals rock
What is not a mineral? granite
What is formed when mud or minerals fill a mold cast
What are the 3 layers of the earth crust, mantle , core


Question Answer
define cell division process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells.
define mitosis part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides.
define cytokinesis divison of the cytoplasm to form two seperate daughter cells.
define chromatid one of two identical sister parts of a duplicated chromosome.
centromere region of a chromosome wherethe two sister chromatids attach.
interphase period of the cell cycle between cell divisions.
cell cycle series of events in which a cell grows prepares for division and divides to form two daughter cells.
prophase first and longest phase of mitosis in which the genetic material inside the nucleus condenses and the chromosomes become visible.
centriole structure in an animal cell that helps to organize cell division
chromatin substances found in eukaryotic chromosomes that consists of DNA tightly coiled around histones.
metaphase phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes line up acros the center of the cell.
anaphase phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes seperate and move to opposite ends of the cell.
telophase phase of mitosis in which the distinct individual chromosomes begin to spread out into a tangle of chromatin.
chromosome threadlike structures
growth factor one of a group of external regulatory proteins that stimulate the growth and division of cells.
cyclin one of a family of proteins that regulates the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells.
apoptosis process of programmed cell death.
cancer disorder in which some of the body's cell lose the ability to control growth.
tumor mass of rapidly dividing cells that can damage surrounding heathly tissue.
embryo developing stage of a multicellular organism.
differentiation process in which cells become specilized in structure and function.
totipotent cells that are able to develope into any type of cell found in the body
blastocyst stage of early development in mammals that consist of hollow ball of cells.
pluripotent cells that are capable of developing into most, but not all, of the body's cell type.
stem cell unspecialized cell that can give rise to one or more types of specialized cells.
multipotent cell with limited potential to develope into many types of differentiated cells.

Vocab words relating to Star Lab

Question Answer
Gravity force that attracts objects to eachother
Moon natural satellite of a planet
Solar System family of planets and moons that revolves around a sun
Star a hot rotating ball of hydrogen and helium gasses
Constellation patterns of stars in the sky
Light Year the distance that light travels in a year
Astronomy study of the universe
Solar Eclipse when the moon blocks the suns light path onto the earth
Planet large body that revolves around a star
Galaxy billions of stars held together by gravity
Lunar Eclipse when the earths shadow falls across the moon


Question Answer
SI International system of measurement used by scientist around the world
matter anything that has mass and takes up space
length the distance between two points
volume the measure of the amount of space an object occupies
mass the measure of the amount of matter in an object
weight the measure of gravities pull on an object
density the concentration of matter in and object
temperature the measure of the amount of haet the measure of the amount of heat an object has
time the measure of the interval between two events
area the measure of the number of square units used to cover the faces or surface of a figure
graduated cylinder container used for measuring volume of a liquid
balance scale a scale used to measure the mass of an object
spring scale a scale used to measure force
thermometer a tool used to measure the temperature
solubility the ability to be dissolved

Proteins as micronutrients -AA catabolism

Question Answer
AA -1/2 syn -1/2 diet -40-50g daily requirement
protein degradation -all involve proteinases
-in cyt.
-catalysed by calpains or proteasomes
cathepsins -lysosomal proteinases
-recycle aa from protiens
digestion of AA -pepsin digestion
-acid denaturation & hydrolysis
pepsin -secreted as pepsinogen(inactive zymogen)
-stomach acids modify (active)
enterokinase attaches… -to membrane of enterocyte which activate trypsinogen
-causes cascade of proteinases
Active chymotrypsin -N-term + charge
-forms ionic link W aspartic acid
action of peptidases -hydrolyse peptide bonds
-in brush borders
-active/facilitated diffusion
Digestibility of proteins -high efficiency
-proteinase inhibitors prevents digestion
Turnover of proteins -7/8 essential aa recycled
-300g aa endogenous
-100g from diet
Nitrogen balance (-ve) -starvation
-short term
-decr intake
-red. GI fn
Nitrogen balance (+) -children & pregnant
-utilise to support protein syn. & growth
equilibrium -healthy adults
essential AA -must be oresent in diet
his&arg -semi-essential
-adults make enough but rate is too low
requirement for met… -can be made by cysteine + CH3 + v.v
Tyr can be made from -phe
limiting AAs -all aa must be present for syn.
-continually supplied from diet
-aa catabolised if not used
complementary proteins -2 low quality -combine to give overall aa balance

Mrs.Gallardo’s 1st nine weeks exam

Question Answer
Application of science to our lives Technology
The study of the laws of motion Physics
Gathering information using the 5 senses Observation
The study of rocks and minerals Geology
Person who studies fresh water Hydrologist
Educated guess that can be tested Hypothesis
Person who specializes in the study of volcanoes Volcanologist
The study of bodies of saltwater Oceanography
Things that stay the same in an experiment Constants
Person who studies weather Meteorologist
Last step of Scientific Inquiry Conclusion
The study of properties of matter Chemistry
Person who studies planets and stars Astronomer
Variable being measured in an experiment Dependent Variable
Person who studies living things Biologist
Variable being tested in an experiment Independent variable
The specific study of earthquakes Seismology
5 steps scientist use to solve problems Scientific Inquiry
To draw a conclusion based on observation and knowledge of the subject Inference
S.I. unit of temperature Celsius
Formula for the volume of a box Length X width X height
Method used to find the volume of an odd shaped object Displacement
Tool used to measure temperature Thermometer
S.I. unit of mass Gram
Lowest possible temperature Absolute Zero
Amount of space an object occupies Volume
Gravity's pull on an object Weight
Tool that measures mass Triple beam balance
Formula for density Mass/volume (mass goes in the calculator first)
1cm3= 1ml
Amount of matter in an object Mass
S.I. unit of weight Newton
Tool that measures liquid volume Graduated Cylinder
S.I. unit of length Meter
Amount of matter that occupies a particular space Density
Tool to measure weight Spring Scale
Number of protons in the nucleus Atomic number
Anything that takes up space and has mass Matter
Atom gains or loses electrons Ion
Negatively charged particles outside of the nucleus Electrons
Total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus Mass number
Atoms with the same protons, but different number of neutrons Isotope
Particles in the nucleus with no charge Neutron
Contain only one kind of atom; in its simplest form Element
Particles in the nucleus with a positive charge Proton
Chart of elements arranged in similar groups Periodic table
The building blocks of matter Atom
Copper Cu
Oxygen O
Sodium Na
Potassium K
Carbon C
Hydrogen H
Helium He
Neon Ne
Lead Pb
Iron Fe
Gold Au
Silver Ag
Chlorine Cl


Question Answer
What is the definition of matter? Anything that takes up space and has mass
What is the definition of chemistry? The study of matter and it's changes
What is the definiton of the particle theory of metter? an explanation of what matter is made of and how it behaves; the particle theory states that all matter is made up of tiny particles that are always moving, that attract each other, and that have space between them.
What is point one of the particle theory? All matter is made up of tiny particles
What is point two of the particle theory? Particles have empty spaces between them
What is point three of the particle theory? Even though you cannot see them, particles are moving randomly all the time
What is point four of the particle theory? Particles move faster and spread farther apart when they are heated
What is point five of the particle theory? Particles attrcat each other, so they tend to stay together rather than fly apart
What is the definition of a solid? A state of matter with a definite shape and a definite volume
What is the definition of a liquid? A state of matter with definite volume, but no definite shape; a liquid takes the shape of it's container
What is the definition of a gas? A state of matter that does not have a definite shape; a gas takes the shape and volume of it's container
What is the difference between a mixture and a pure substance? A mixture is matter that contains two or more particles while a pure substance is matter that contains only one kind or particle
What type of water is a pure substance? Distilled water. It has had all non-water particles removed
Why is apple juice and tap water mixtures and not pure substances? They are mixtures because apple juice has flavour. water, vitamin,and sugar particles. Tap water contains water and many other particles.
What remains the same when matter changes state? The particles themselves remain the same and the number of particles remain the same
What changes when matter changes state? The arrangement of the particles and the speed of the particles change
What is another word for a mechanical mixture? Heterogeneous
What is another word for a solution? Homogeneous
What is a mechanical mixture/heterogeneous? A mixture with different parts that you can see
What is a solution/homogeneous? A mixture that looks like a pure substance, you an't see the different parts it is made up of two or more pure substances
List 2 examples of a mechancical mixture/heterogeneous Omlette and granola bar
List 2 examples of a solution/homogeneous Apple juice and stainless steel

Science Explorer Nature of Science and Technology Ch 2

Question Answer
Coorindate a pair of numbers used to determine the position of a point on a graph
Density A measure of how much mass is contained in a given volume (mass/volume)
Horizontal axis (x-axis) A line that runs left to right along the bottom of a graph, on which the manipulated variable is labeled
Line of best fit A smooth line that reflects the general pattern in a graph
Linear graph a line graph in which the data points yield a straight line
Mean A numerical average of the numbers in a list
Median The middle number in a list of numbers
Meniscus The curved upper surface of a liquid in a column of liquid
Metric system A system of measurement based on the number 10.
Mode The number that appears most often in a list of numbers
Nonlinear graph A line graph in which the data points do not fall along a straight line
Origin The point where the x and y axis cross on a graph
Percent error A calculation used to determine how accurate, or close to the true value, an experimental value really is
SI International System of Units; a version of the metric system used by all scientists
Significant figures All the digits in a measurement that have been measured exactly, plus one digit whose value has been estimates
Vertical axis (y-axis) A line that runs up and down along the side of a graph, on which the responding variable is labeled

Scientific Literacy Words for the Eye

Question Answer
Transparent front surface that protects the eye. Also acts as a lens to help focus light rays Cornea
An opening through which light enters the inside of the eye. Enlarges and shrinks to let in different amounts of light. Pupil
A ring of muscle that contracts and expands to change the size of the pupil. Iris
A layer of cells that lines the inside of the eyeball. Made up of tiny, light-sensitive cells called Rods and Cones. Retina
Cells that contain a pigment that responds to small amounts of light. Allow you to see in dim light. Rods
Cells that respond to color, detects red, green, and blue light. Cones
Can see nearby things clearly, but objects at a distance are blurred. (Eyeball is to long) Nearsighted
Can see distant objects clearly, but nearby objects appear blurry. (Eyeball is to short) Farsighted